'Abdul Quadir Jilani: Famous Islamic Scholar and Sufi master. The Qadri Order of Sufis is named after him.

Abid: A true and sincere worshipper.

Abu Bakr Siddiq: Friend of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S), and father of his wife 'A'isha (S.A.S). Later the first of the Rightly guided Khalifas.

Akbar: Mogul emperor of India who creates his own hybrid religion called Din-i Ilahi.

Ali: Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammed (S.A.S). Later, one of the rightly guided Khalifas.

Alimul Ghayab: Knower of the Unseen: title of Allah the Almighty.

Allah (SWT): The One Unique God, who is All-Powerful, Absolute, and like nothing which human beings are capable of imagining.

Amal: A man's deeds, especially good deeds.

Ambiya (-i Kiram): (Noble) Prophets, pl. of Nabi (qv.).

Ayat: A verse of the Quran.

Baatil: Invalid and wrong.

Baba Shah Jalaluddin al-Yamani (R.A): A Sufi saint who was instrumental in spreading Islam in the area of India which now form's Bangladesh. His tomb is in Sylhet.

Barakat: Blessing.

Barzazh: The state in which the souls finds itself after death but before it is called to account on the Day of Judgement

Bayazid al-Bistami (R.A): A great Sufi Sheikh, Saint and Scholar.

Bukhari: (cf. Appendix 2): The most famous and most widely accepted collection of Hadith.

Data Ganj Bakhsh: 'Ali al-Hujwiri (R.A), whose tomb is situated in Lahore, Pakistan. A famous Sufi Sheikh.

Dervish: One who has rejected the attractions of this world to wander in the pursuit of knowledge and divine grace.

Din: Way of life, religion.

Din-i Ilahi: "The Religion of God", a religion created by the Mogul Emperor Akbar by merging elements of Islam, Hinduism, etc.

Fardh: Obligatory

Fiqh: Islamic Law

Hadith (Sharif): A true anecdote of the sayings or doings of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S), his companions (R.A.) or their immediate successors (R.A). After the Quran, the corpus of Hadith forms the basis of Islamic Law.

Hajj: The yearly pilgrimage to Makka. Compulsory once in a lifetime for those Muslims who are capable of performing it.

Halal: Allowed, permitted.

Haqq: The (Absolute) Truth, an attribute of Allah.

Haram: Forbidden, not allowed.

Hasan Basri (R.A): One of the friends of the companions of Muhammed (S.A.S). A great Sufi, Sheikh and Scholar.

Hashar: The gathering together of people on the Day of Resurrection.

Hazrat: A title prefixed to the names of the religion scholars, saints and personages.

Hidayat: (Divine) guidance.

Ibadaat: Acts of worship.

Ibn'Abbas (R.A.): One of the companions of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S).

Ilah: A God, idol, object of worship.

Iman: Faith.

Insha Allah: "If God wishes!". A formula used when speaking of future events.

Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib: One of the companions of the Prophet (S.A.S).

Jahangir: A title of the Mogul Emperor Salim.

Jannatul Firdaws: The highest level of paradise.

Jibril (A.S.): The Archangel Gabriel.

Jihad: Holy war, war in a sacred cause.

Jihadul Akbar: The greatest holy war, the struggle with one's own ego (Nafs).

Jinn: A class of being very similar to human beings and subject to the same divine laws as them. They were created of smokeless fire and are normally invisible to the human eye.

Jiziya: The poll-tax paid by non-muslim residents of a muslim land in return for which the muslim ruler pledge protection of those people.

Junayad (R.A): An early Sufi Sheikh of Baghdad.

Ka'ba: The cubiform structure in Makka which is the focus of Muslim prayers throughout the world.

Kafir (pl. Kuffar): A non-believer.

Kalimah: The sentence which states the essence of the Muslim faith "There is no God but Allah, Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah"

Khaja Mu'inuddin Chisti (R.A): A great Sufi Saint, instrumental in introducing Islam to India. His tomb is situated in Ajmer.

Khalifa: Deputy or vice regent, also successor.

Khurasan: A district now the north-eastern Iran.

La Ilaha Illallah: "There is no God but Allah", the first of the Kalimah (Q.)

Lillah: Charity given voluntarily and for Allah's sake.

Ma'boob: An object of worship.

Makhluq: Created.

Ma'rifat: Gnosis, true inner knowledge.

Mufassireen: Commentators on the Quran.

Muhammed (S.A.S): The last of Allah (SWT)'s Prophets to be sent to Earth.

Muhammed Guri: King and Conqueror in India.

Muhammed Nuri: A Sufi Saint.

Mujaddid: One who is said to come at the beginning of each Islamic century to revive Islam.

Mujaddid Alf-i Thanki (R.A): the Mujaddid who came at the beginning of the second millennium of Islam, Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi.

Mumin: A believer.

Munafiqun: Hypocrites.

Nabi: A prophet.

Nafl: Supererogatory (Prayers or devotions), those which are not obligatory.

Nafs: The ego.

Nafsi-i Ammara: The ego while it is still at the stage where it constantly orders one to do evil.

Nafsi-i Lawwama: the ego which has evolved to the stage where it accuses one when one commits a sin.

Nafa-i Mutma'inna: The Nafs when it has finally been controlled and is content.

Nur: (Divine) light.

Pritiraj: (Prithvi Raj Chauhan) An Indian king at the time of Hazrat Mu'inuddin Chishti (R.A).

Qalb: The Heart.

Qiyamah: (The Day of) Resurrection.

Quran Sharif: The Noble Quran, The Divine book revealed to the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S).

Quraysh: The Arab tribe which the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S) belonged.

Rabi'a Basri (R.A): A very famous woman saint.

Rahmat: Mercy.

Rak'at: A cycle of prayer.

Rasul: Messenger (of Allah).

Rasulullah: Allah's messenger, the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S).

Riba: Interest, usury.

Ruh: Soul (order of Allah (SWT)).

Ruku': A division of the Qur'an.

Sabr: Patience.

Sadaqah: Charity.

Sahaba: The companions of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S).

Sajdah: Prostration.

Salat: Prayer, the Muslim ritual prayer.

Salatul Jum'ah: The Friday congregational prayer.

Salman Farsi (R.A): One of the companions of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S) who came from far Iran.

Selim: Mogul Emperor of India, son of Akbar (qv.).

Shahid: A martyr, one who dies for Allah's sake, in the path of religion.

Shaqiq (R.A): A great Sufi.

Shibli (R.A): An early Sufi Sheikh and Master.

Shi'ah: A sect of Islam who maintain that 'Ali (K.), should have been the immediate successor to the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S), and not Abu Bakr (R.A.).

Shirk: Polytheism, ascribing partners to Allah (SWT).

Siratul Mustaqim: The straight way, the easy way to Allah (SWT).

Shukr: Thanks, Thanksgiving.

Sunnah: The established practice of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S), which we are also enjoyed to follow to our best ability.

Surah: A chapter of the Qur'an.

Taqdir: Predestiny.

Taqwa: Fear of Allah (S.W.T), piety.

Tawhid: Unshaking belief in oneness of Allah (SWT).

Tawakkul: Absolute trust in Allah (SWT).

Tawfiq: Success and sanction from Allah (SWT) for a venture.

'Umar (R.A.): Companion of the Prophet Muhammed (S.A.S) and the second of the rightly guided Khalifas.

Zakat: A poor-tax levied on all Muslims who can afford to pay it.

Zikr: Remembrance of Allah (SWT).
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